[de] [it] [fr]

M 8

Diffuse Nebula M8 (NGC 6523), an emission nebula, in Sagittarius

Lagoon Nebula

Right Ascension 18 : 03.8 (h:m)
Declination -24 : 23 (deg:m)
Distance 5.2 (kly)
Visual Brightness 6.0 (mag)
Apparent Dimension 90x40 (arc min)

Cluster NGC 6530 discovered by Flamsteed about 1680. Lagoon Nebula discovered by Le Gentil in 1747.

As often for diffuse nebulae, the cluster of young stars which has formed from the nebula's material was discovered first, in this case the young open cluster NGC 6530 in the Eastern half of M8 was discovered by Flamsteed about 1680, and again seen by De Cheseaux in 1746, before Le Gentil found the nebula in 1747. Abbe Nicholas Louis de la Caille has cataloged it in his 1751-52 compilation as Lacaille III.14. When Charles Messier cataloged this object on May 23, 1764 he also primarily described the cluster, and mentioned the nebula separately as surrounding the star 9 Sagittarii; his original position is closer to the modern position of the cluster than to that of the nebula. Nevertheless, it is the nebula which is now generally regarded as "Messier 8".

According to Kenneth Glyn Jones, the Lagoon Nebula has an apparent extension of 90x40 minutes of arc, which is 3 x 1 1/3 the apparent diameter of the full moon, and corresponds to about 140x60 light years if our distance of 5,200 light years should be correct, which is a bit uncertain; newer sources have 4850 (Glyn Jones) to 6500, but David J. Eichler gives the value of 5,200 light years in his article entitled "Plunge into the Lagoon" in Astronomy Vol. 24, No. 7 (July 1996).

One of the remarkable features of the Lagoon Nebula is the presence of dark nebulae known as 'globules' (Burnham) [see expanded image] which are collapsing protostellar clouds with diameters of about 10,000 AU (Astronomical Units). They can also be seen, along with other detail, in the DSSM image of M8. Some of the more conspicuous globules have been cataloged in Barnhard's catalogue of dark nebulae: Barnard 88 (B 88), the comet-shaped globule extended North-to-South (up-down) in the left half and near top of our image, small B 89 in the region of cluster NGC 6530, and long, narrow black B 296 at the south edge of the nebula (lower edge of the image). According to David Eichler, the nebula has probably a depth comparable to its linear extension indicated above.

Within the brightest part of the Lagoon Nebula, a remarkable feature can be seen, which according to its shape is called the "Hourglass Nebula" (see our detailed photos). This feature was discovered by John Herschel and occurs in a region where a vivid star formation process appears to take place currently; the bright emission is caused by heavy excitation of very hot, young stars, the illuminator of the hourglass is the hot star Herschel 36 (mag 9.5, spectral class O7). Closely by this feature is the apparently brightest of the stars associated with the Lagoon Nebula, 9 Sagittarii (mag 5.97, spectral class O5), which surely contributes a lot of the high energy radiation which excites the nebula to shine.

As published in January 1997, the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to study the Hourglass Nebula region in the Lagoon Nebula M8.

The Lagoon Nebula is a magnificient object for the amateur astrophotographer, as Brad Wallis and Robert Provin have demonstrated with their outstanding images, and Dr. Andjelko Glivar with his photos taken through a Celestron 8.

The young open cluster NGC 6530 associated with the Lagoon Nebula M8 was classified as of Trumpler type "II 2 m n" (see e.g. the Sky Catalog 2000), meaning that it is detached but only weakly concentrated toward its center, its stars scatter in a moderate range of brightness, it is moderately rich (50--100 stars), and associated with nebulosity (certainly, with the Lagoon nebula). As the light of its member stars show little reddening by interstellar matter, this cluster is probably situated just in front of the Lagoon Nebula. Its brightest star is a 6.9 mag hot O5 star, and Eichler gives its age as 2 million years. Woldemar Götz mentions this cluster as containing one peculiar Of star, an extremely hot bright star of spectral type O with peculiar spectral lines of ionized Helium and Nitrogene.

The nebula's faint extension to the East (top in our image, but beyond) has an own IC number: IC 4678.

M8 is situated in a very conspicuous field of the Sagittarius Milky Way. Another capture from the DSSM shows the Lagoon Nebula M8 and Trifid Nebula M20, plus the rich star field and faint nebulae surrounding them. We have also more images of the region of M8 and M20, which sometimes also include the nearby open star cluster M21.

  • Historical Observations and Descriptions of M8
  • M8 images from the UK Schmidt Telescope (David Malin)
  • More images of M8
  • Amateur images of M8

    Bill Arnett's Lagoon Nebula M8 photo page, info page.

  • SIMBAD Data of M8
  • NED Data of M8
  • Observing Reports for M8 (IAAC Netastrocatalog)

    Hartmut Frommert (spider@seds.org)
    Christine Kronberg (smil@lrz.uni-muenchen.de)

    [SEDS] [MAA] [Home] [M 7] [M 9] [Next Cluster] [Next Nebula] [Next Galaxy] [Image Browser] [DSSM] [Indexes] [PNG Image]

    Last Modification: 2 Jan 2000, 23:40 MET