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M 17

Diffuse Nebula M17 (NGC 6618), an emission nebula, in Sagittarius

Omega, Swan, Horseshoe, or Lobster Nebula

Right Ascension 18 : 20.8 (h:m)
Declination -16 : 11 (deg:m)
Distance 5 (kly)
Visual Brightness 7.0 (mag)
Apparent Dimension 11.0 (arc min)

Discovered by Philippe Loys de Cheseaux in 1745-46.

The Omega Nebula M17, also called the Swan Nebula, the Horseshoe Nebula, or (especially on the southern hemisphere) the Lobster Nebula, is a region of star formation and shines by excited emission, caused by the higher energy radiation of young stars. Unlike in many other emission nebulae, however, these stars are not obvious in optical images, but hidden in the nebula. Star formation is either still active in this nebula, or ceased very recently. A small cluster of about 35 bright but obscurred stars seems to be imbedded in the nebulosity.

The color of the Omega Nebula is reddish, with some graduation to pink. This color comes from the hot hydrogene gas which is excited to shine by the hottest stars which have just formed within the nebula. However, the brightest region is actually of white color, not overexposed as one might think. This phenomenon is apparently a result of a mixture of emission light from the hottest gas, together with reflections of the bright star light from the dust in this region. The nebula contains a large amount of dark obscuring material, which is obvious in its remarkable features. This matter has been heated by the hidden young stars, and shines brightly in infrared light.

The mass of the gas has been estimated to amount about 800 times that of the Sun, enough for forming a conspicuous cluster, and a good deal more than that of the Orion nebula M42. While the bright nebula seems to be roughly 15 light years in extension, the total gaseous cloud, including low-luminosity material, seems to extend to at least 40 light years. Distance estimates are spread over a wide range, but modern values are between 5,000 and 6,000 light years, thus little less than that of its apparent neighbor, M16 with the Eagle nebula - apparently, these two star forming regions are indeed close together, in the same spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy.

The discovery of M17 by De Cheseaux didn't get widely known, so Messier independently rediscovered it and cataloged it on June 3, 1764.

  • Historical Observations and Descriptions of M17
  • More images of M17
  • Amateur images of M17; more amateur images
  • Images of the M16, M17, and M18 region
  • Milky Way south of M17 with open cluster M18 and star cloud M24

    Bill Arnett's Omega Nebula M17 photo page, info page.

  • Multispectral Image Collection of M17, SIRTF Multiwavelength Messier Museum
  • Jean-Claude Mermilliod's WEBDA cluster page for the open cluster in M17
  • SIMBAD Data of M17
  • NED Data of M17
  • Observing Reports for M17 (IAAC Netastrocatalog)

    Hartmut Frommert (spider@seds.org)
    Christine Kronberg (smil@lrz.uni-muenchen.de)

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    Last Modification: 9 Dec 1999, 22:58 MET