Using materials in the Messier pages:
Royalties, © Copyrights, Usage Restrictions and Regulations

The materials in these pages (especially the images) are presented in these pages for the personal delight of their readers, and therefore may be freely used for private purpose, thanks to all contributors.

Nevertheless, many of these materials are copyrighted, subject to royalties, or usage restrictions. This is normally, but possibly not always, indicated in the relevant pages (e.g., near the materials) to our best knowledge, either by an explicit copyright statement or a source acknowledgement. In any case, it is the responsibility of the user to observe all third party rights of the materials in our pages (especially in case of any for-profit usage); in particular, check with any source, indicated in our pages or not, if you consider such usage. Please email me in case you have any questions.

Please notify the maintainer of these pages in case you have, or know of, any additional rights on materials in our pages which you think are not properly indicated.

The SEDS Messier Catalog database as a whole is the collective intellectual property of its creators, SEDS, and in its present form, of its maintainer and his co-author. Materials not restricted by above regulations may be freely used for non-profit, educational purpose, if the SEDS Messier Catalog online database is properly acknowledged as source, under the following conditions:

Moreover, we appreciate to get informed by email in this case. For any other intended use, please contact the maintainer. Also, as SEDS is in the steady need of fund raising for their non-profit endeavors (including their internet services), contributions as you think is appropriate are certainly appreciated, if you use our materials and have a grant for this.

We particularly appreciate (and encourage) full or partial official mirroring of our stuff, please look at our mirrors webpage.

Important Notice: Recently, a small but unfortunately increasing number of sites have started to claim false copyrights on stuff originating or obtained from us. We strongly depreciate this practise, state that it is unlawful to claim inappropriate rights on stuff originating from our services (see our usage regulations above), and particularly emphasize that this might cause third-party royalty holders, or at some time even ourselves, to bring serious problems to those falsely claiming any ownership rights on their (the owners') stuff. Concerned parties are requested to remove any false claims of rights.

July 12, 2001
Hartmut Frommert, Maintainer of the Messier pages at SEDS

Hartmut Frommert (
Christine Kronberg (

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Last Modification: 12 July 2001, 15:50 MET