[M galaxy] Click the icon to view galaxies of the Messier catalog

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The icon shows M51, the Whirlpool Galaxy.

[Spiral] Spiral

Spiral galaxies usually consist of two major components: A flat, large disk which often contains a lot of interstellar matter (visible sometimes as reddish diffuse emission nebulae, or as dark dust clouds) and young (open) star clusters and associations, which have emerged from them (recognizable from the blueish light of their hottest, short-living, most massive stars), often arranged in conspicuous and striking spiral patterns and/or bar structures, and an ellipsoidally formed bulge component, consisting of an old stellar population without interstellar matter, and often associated with globular clusters. The young stars in the disk are classified as stellar population I, the old bulge stars as population II. The luminosity and mass relation of these components seem to vary in a wide range, giving rise to a classification scheme. The pattern structures in the disk are most probably transient phenomena only, caused by gravitational interaction with neighboring galaxies.

Our sun is one of several 100 billion stars in a spiral galaxy, the Milky Way.

[S0] Lenticular (S0)

These are, in short, "spiral galaxies without spiral structure", i.e. smooth disk galaxies, where stellar formation has stopped long ago, because the interstellar matter was used up. Therefore, they consist of old population II stars only, or at least chiefly. From their appearance and stellar contents, they can often hardly be distinguished from ellipticals observationally.

[Elliptical] Elliptical

Elliptical galaxies are actually of ellipsoidal shape, and it is now quite safe from observation that they are usually triaxial (cosmic footballs, as Paul Murdin, David Allen, and David Malin put it). They have little or no global angular momentum, i.e. do not rotate as a whole (of course, the stars still orbit the centers of these galaxies, but the orbits are statistically oriented so that only little net orbital angular momentum sums up). Normally, elliptical galaxies contain very little or no interstellar matter, and consist of old population II stars only: They appear like luminous bulges of spirals, without a disk component.

However, for some ellipticals, small disk components have been discovered, so that they may be representatives of one end of a common scheme of galaxy forms which includes the disk galaxies.

[Irregular] Irregular

Often due to distortion by the gravitation of their intergalactic neighbors, these galaxies do not fit well into the scheme of disks and ellipsoids, but exhibit peculiar shapes. A subclass of distorted disks is however frequently occuring.

From their appearance, galaxies are classified in types as given above, as spiral, lenticular, elliptical, and irregular galaxies, where spirals may be further classified for the presence of a bar (S: spirals, SAB: Intermediate, SB: Barred spirals). More precisely, ellipticals are sub-classified for ellipticity from E7 (strongly elongated) to E0 (circular), and spirals for prominence of bulge versus spiral arms from Sa (or SABa, SBa) to Sc or Sd. This so-called Hubble Classification Scheme can well be illustrated by Messier's galaxies:

Galaxies of all types, though of a wide variety of shapes and appearances, have many basic common features. They are huge agglomerations of stars like our Sun, counting several millions to several trillions. Most of the stars are not lonely in space like our Sun, but occur in pairs (binaries) or multiple systems.

The most massive galaxies are giants which are a million times more massive than the lightest: Their mass range is from at most some million times that of our Sun in case of the smallest dwarfs, to several trillion solar masses in case of giants like M87 or M77. Accordingly, the number of stars in them varies in the same range.

The linear size of galaxies also scatters, ranging from small dwarfs of few thousands of light years diameter (like M32) to respectable several 100,000 light years. Among the biggest Messier galaxies are the Andromeda galaxy M31 and the bright active Seyfert II galaxy M77.

Our Milky Way Galaxy, a spiral galaxy, is among the massive and big galaxies with at least 250 billion solar masses (there are hints that the total mass may even be as large as 750 billion to 1 trillion times that of the Sun) and a disk diameter of 100,000 light years.

Besides very many individual stars, most galaxies contain the following typical objects:

Galaxies normally emit light of every wavelength, from the long radio and microwave end over the IR, visual and UV light to the short, high-enregy X- and gamma rays. Interstellar matter is coolest and therefore best visible in radio and IR, while supernova remnants are most conspicuous in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Some galactic nuclei are remarkably distinguished from the average: These so-called Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are intensive sources of light of all wavelengths from radio to X-rays. The activities seen in the AGNs are caused by gaseous matter falling into, and interacting with, the supermassive central objects mentioned above, according to the current consensus of most researchers. Sometimes, the spectra of these nuclei indicate enormous gaseous masses in rapid motion; galaxies with such a nucleus are called Seyfert galaxies (for their discoverer, Karl Seyfert). M77 is the brightest Seyfert galaxy in the sky. Few galaxies have even more exotic nuclei, which are extremely compact and extremely bright, outshining their whole parent galaxy; these are called quasars (an acronym for QUAsi-StellAR objects). From their properties, quasars resemble extremely active Seyfert galaxy nuclei. However, quasars are so rare and the nearest is so remote that the brightest of them, 3C273, about 2 billion lightyears away in the constellation Virgo, is only of magnitude 13.7, and none of them is in Messier's or even in the NGC or IC catalog.

Sometimes, at irregular intervals given by chance, in any type of galaxies, a supernova occurs: This is a star suddenly brightning to a high luminosity which may well outshine the whole galaxy; the maximal absolute magnitude of a supernova may well reach -19 to -20 magnitudes. This remarkable phenomenon has attracted the attention of many astronomers (equally both professionals and amateurs), who observe galaxies regularly as they "hunt" supernovae. Supernovae have been observed in several Messier catalog galaxies.



Imagery and atlasses: Of course, fine galaxy photos can be found in many more general astronomy books also.

Special observing Guides:

Most general Deep Sky Observing Guides are good as well.


Historical Review:

[Galaxy Clusters] Galaxy Clusters

Some galaxies are isolated "island universes" which float lonely through an otherwise empty region of the universe. But usually, space is too densely crowded with them, so that they form groups of some galaxies (or some dozens of galaxies), or even large clusters of up to several thousands of galaxies. The galaxies of these groups are in mutual gravitational interaction which may have significant influence on their appearance.

Hartmut Frommert (
Christine Kronberg (

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Last Modification: 25 Jan 1998, 14:08 MET